Monday, January 15, 2018

Production Technology of Wheat

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Production Technology of WheatWheat is a cereal crop which is grown in Bangladesh by following rice-wheat crop rotation. The yield of wheat varies with the technology which are followed for growing wheat. The yield of wheat can be got maximum by practicing proper production technology of wheat. The wheat production technology is given below:

What type of land and soil is suitable for wheat?

Wheat can grow in high and medium high land. It can also grow in medium low land if the water move away before November. Land should be well drained for wheat cultivation. Generally wheat can grows well in loam, sandy loam and clay loam soils.

What is seed rate of wheat?

For the production of wheat, 120 kg/ha seed is recommended. But it is wise to use 15-20 kg more seed for large seeded variety.
What is the process of seed treatment of wheat?
For the production of wheat, seeds must be treated with fungicide like Provax -200, Autostin or others @3g per kg seed to get better yield. Seed treatment increases plant population by 20-25% and grain yield by 10-12%.

When is the proper sowing time of wheat?

Wheat seeds should be sown within 15-30 November. The yield rate will decrease with the advancement of time after November.
How is the land prepared for wheat cultivation?
The land should be well pulverized for wheat cultivation. Wheat needs compact seedbed for good and uniform germination. Three or four ploughings should be done followed by laddering. The land should be levelled well which helps to get uniform plant height.

What is the proper sowing method for wheat?

Wheat seeds can be sown in two ways. One is broadcasting and another is line sowing. Although broadcasting is easier and less time required than line sowing, line sowing should be done for easy intercultural operations and better yield. A row spacing of 15-22.5 cm should be followed for line sowing under irrigated conditions for timely sown wheat. But the optimum row to row distance is 22.5 cm.

How much manures and fertilizers required for wheat?

2-3 tons farm yard manure should be applied per hectare of land for wheat cultivation. Besides this, urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum and boric acid should be applied @ 220, 150, 100, 100, 6-7 kg per hectare, respectively. Two-third of urea and all other fertilizers should be incorporated with soil at the time of final land preparation and the rest one-third of urea should be top dressed at the time of first irrigation. Liming should be done in case of acidic soil at the rate of 1 ton per hectare once in three years cycle. Lime should be mixed with soil before 1-2 weeks of sowing seed.

What is the time of irrigation in wheat?

The number of irrigations for wheat cultivation depends on the soil moisture condition. But two or three irrigations are optimum for getting better yield. Generally, first irrigation is done at 17-21 days after sowing. But the first irrigation should be done at 15 DAS in case of very dry soil. The first irrigation can also be delayed if the soil contain enough moisture. The second and third irrigations should be applied at maximum tillering stage and early stage of grain filling, respectively. The first and third irrigation should be light to avoid seedling damage and plant lodging, respectively.

What types of intercultural Operations are done in wheat?

Weeding should be done at 25-30 days after sowing for getting better yield. Weeds can be controlled after first irrigation by hand weeding. Weeds can also be controlled by applying herbicides viz. 2, 4-D amine, Affinity or Fielder at the rate of 35 ml in 10 L water. Herbicides must be applied between 25-30 DAS before first irrigation.

What are the pest and diseases in wheat?

Some pests and diseases are found in wheat. The major pests are bird and rat and the diseases are leaf blight and leaf rust. Proper measures should be taken after observing the pests and diseases of wheat as and when necessary.

How harvesting and seed preservation are done and when?

Harvesting of wheat should be done at full maturity stage in a sunny day. Generally wheat is harvested by hand. After harvesting, wheat should be threshed by paddle thresher of power thresher to collect all the wheat from panicle easily. Seeds should be dried in sun.

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Thursday, November 16, 2017

Challenges of Agriculture Sector in Bangladesh

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Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Most of the population of this country has to depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Moreover, the population is still growing fast. So the agriculture sector will have to face a lot of challenges in the near future. The major challenges are given below:
  1. The cultivable land, water and climatic gifts are decreasing every day, but the population is increasing. So agricultural productivity has to be increased for the growing vast population by making proper use of limited resources. The maintenance of land quality and overall environment after increasing production will be a big challenge for Bangladesh in near future.
  2. The productivity of Bangladesh is low compared to other developed countries both in crop and non-crop sectors. The farm level productivity can be increased through technical improvement and yield gap can be reduced thorough effective extension services. But the proper technology is not coming due to lack of budgetary allocations for research facilities and incentives to scientists. So, budget should be increased for research and extension for the development of agriculture in this country.
  3. Agriculture is now in semi-commercial level. In the era of globalization, it should be concentrated on the needs as the farmers can take part in the international market by growing high value crops. For this, they have to give better access to credit, insurance facility and other agricultural services timely. Ensuring these facilities might a challenge in Bangladesh.
  4. Bangladesh is now a self-sufficient country in rice production. This status is achieved by stimulating the production growth of rice over the last few years. It is anticipated that although the availability of inputs like land and water is decreasing with time, but the production of rice will have to be increased in future due to increased population. The trend of increasing rice production will be difficult to retain without the suitable technology with extra high yielding varieties.
  5. Crop diversification by high value crops is becoming popular day by day. The value of high value fruits and vegetables is certainly high. But the future of these crops will be better, when there will be sufficient appropriate technology and developed market infrastructure.
  6. The young generation are not interested enough to build a carrier with farming. Again the number of agricultural labor is declining every day. So farm mechanization is necessary to continue the agricultural work which can help to reduce production cost in the world of labor scarcity. It would be a great challenge for the Bangladesh to develop various agricultural technologies which are easy to use and versatile.
  7. The socioeconomic status of most of the farmers in Bangladesh are not good. It has a great impact on the adoption of technologies. Because there is a significant yield gap between farmers field and research field. For the dissemination of technologies, improving the socioeconomic status is a major challenge.
  8. The climate is changing negatively which is very alarming for Bangladesh according to the opinion of national and international experts. The sea level is rising every day due to adverse climatic conditions. As a result, a significant portion of coastal area will go down under water permanently. A large number of people have to move from their place and the salinity will spread to the nearby places. The drought, desertification and scarcity of groundwater will be seen in the northern area of the country due to low rainfall. Although Bangladesh has a low contribution to the greenhouse gas emission, the country is the worst sufferer of the impacts of climate change. As the mitigation of the impact of climate change is beyond the control of Bangladesh, it is very difficult to manage the impacts by developing adaptation measures.
The challenges of agriculture sector is increasing with time. If we cannot overcome these challenges, the agriculture sector of this country will be very much affected. As a result, food security will be in danger. So, Bangladesh has to take necessary measures to mitigate the challenges in time.
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Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Problems of Agriculture sector in Bangladesh

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Agriculture is one of the most important factor in the economy of Bangladesh. Although the share of agriculture in GDP is declining day by day, but it is still a great source of employment in Bangladesh. New technology is coming frequently which help to enrich agriculture. Although the technology has advanced, the problems and challenges of agriculture sector in Bangladesh are not solved yet. This sector has to face so many problems every day which act as a barrier for the development of this sector. The problems of this sector in Bangladesh are discussed below:
1. The cultivable land is decreasing gradually in this country which is one of the major problems of this sector. A greater portion of agricultural land is being used every year by the rapidly growing population for their housing and other needs.
2. Any economic sector will be developed only, when there is a long term planned investment. But such type of investment is very rare in agriculture from both public and private sector.
3. There are many technologies in agriculture which are developed by the research organization, but most of them are still unknown to the farmers.
4. The nature is still the main factor of agriculture in Bangladesh. As a result, the crops are sometimes damaged by the sudden negative nature and the farmers cannot harvest the crop according to their expectations.
5. The land of this country is continuously divided into many pieces due to inheritance complexity. The management of small land is somewhat difficult as many types of weed can grow in the border of that land.
6. The soil health is deteriorating day by day due to heavy pressure and injudicious use of chemical fertilizers. It is also considered a major problem of agriculture.
7. Poverty is still prevailing in this country which is a problem of agriculture. Because the poor farmers cannot invest required money for growing crop due to lack of capital. As a result, they don’t get the expected yield from the crops.
8. The marketing system of agricultural products is not developed at a level in which farmers can get the fair price of their commodities. As a result, the farmers loss their interest to grow crops.
9. Most of the agricultural products are perishable which requires safe and modern storing services.
10. Another problem of agriculture is low productivity in Bangladesh. This is due to the lack of inadequate modern technologies, high yielding varieties and proper agricultural knowledge.
11. Lack of irrigation facilities is one of the major problems in Bangladesh. Although, Bangladesh is advancing a lot towards irrigation, a greater part of land still remains fallow due to lack of irrigation.
12. Lack of agricultural credit supply is also a great problem in this sector. Moreover, there is no insurance facility in agriculture.
Agriculture plays an important role for the development of economy in Bangladesh. It is not only contributing to the GDP but also providing employment for most of the people, especially poor of this country. But, it has to face a lot of problems every day. If we want to ensure food security and other needs, we all have to come forward from our position for mitigating the problems as this sector can give more contribution to the development of Bangladesh.
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Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of Bangladesh

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Bangladesh is a country whose economy is dependent on agriculture. The country has aimed at accelerated economic growth, human resource development and self-reliance in the 21st century. To fulfill the mentioned target, a greater portion of people have to involve in agriculture in order to continue the food supply for a large population. Because this country has a bountiful fertile land which is suitable for crop diversification. The yield of every crop grown in these fertile land is increasing day by day which have a great role on the economy of this country.
Bangladesh is one of the predominantly agro-based developing countries in the world. The main sector of Bangladesh economy is agriculture since its independence. According to BBS, agriculture is not only contributing around 17 percent of the GDP but also providing employment to 45 percent workforce. Around 84 percent of the rural people have to depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood. Moreover, the primary source of employment, livelihood and food security for most of the bucolic people is agriculture. It also contributes to earn foreign currency by supplying raw materials to the industry. It is blood for many agro-based economies like Bangladesh, although industrialization has a great effect on the modern economy.
Although the contribution of agriculture in GDP is decreasing day by day in Bangladesh, but the trend of the role of agriculture to non-agricultural development is going upward. It is still an irreplaceable driving force for the economic development of Bangladesh.
Agriculture has a great role for the generation of employment in this country. According to BBS, the highest number of people are involved in this sector which is about 47.33 percent.
It has found in the report of BBS that the total contribution of all sub-sectors of agriculture was around 16 percent of GDP in 2014-15. The crop sub-sector alone shares for 12.27 percent of GDP whereas the fisheries sector contributes about 3.69 percent.
The rate of rural wages is strongly correlated with the trend of agricultural development because a greater portion of income comes from wage labor in agricultural activities in the case of poor households.
The main crops grown in this country are rice, wheat, jute, maize, sugarcane, potato, pulses, tea and tobacco. The 72 percent of total population is contributing to the crop sub-sector. As a result, crop sub-sector dominates in agriculture sector. The rest of the population works in fisheries, livestock and forestry sub-sector which is 10.33, 10.11 and 7.33 respectively.
The government has taken many steps such as crop diversification program, credit supply, extension and research and input distribution policies which help to increase the yield. The country has now attained self-sufficiency in the area of food grain production.
The source of raw materials is agriculture for agro-based industries which acts as backward and forward linkage. A greater portion of the manufacturing sector except ready made garments also depends on the processing of agricultural commodities such as rice, wheat, jute, tea, sugarcane, hides and leather and shrimps. There are also some agro-based industries like jute industry which has to depend fully on agricultural products for their required inputs
Bangladesh has earned a reasonable amount of foreign currency every year by exporting agricultural products. According to Ministry of Finance, the amount was USD 1154.80 million which was 3.70 percent of total foreign earnings. The main agricultural export items of Bangladesh are raw jute and jute goods, tea and frozen foods. The export of non-traditional agricultural commodities are also increasing every day.
Historically, this sector has had the great share in the economy in Bangladesh. However, the importance of agriculture has fallen with the advancement of time whereas the importance is raised in the case of service sector. Yet, much of the services are still related to transportation and trading of agricultural products.
Agriculture plays a significant role in the overall economic performance of Bangladesh. This is not only in the case of its share to GDP but also as a major source of earning foreign currency. It is also providing employment to a greater portion of the population, especially the poor. As a result, the people of this country can earn money by working in this sector which helps to develop the country economically.
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Monday, November 13, 2017

Opportunities and constraints of Crop Diversification

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Crop diversification is the shifting from one crop or cropping system to another crop or cropping system which is done by observing the market demand for making more benefit. It is now practiced more or less by the farmers of Bangladesh. It is becoming popular day by day. However, there are both opportunities and constraints for the diversification of crop in this country which are given below under the head.


The term crop diversification is now a more discussed topic in the arena of agriculture throughout the world. The opportunities of practicing crop diversification in the Bangladesh are as follows:
  1. Bangladesh is such a country which have favorable climate with six different seasons. As a result, there are ample opportunities for the cultivation of different crops.
  2. The soils of this country is very fertile which can do possible the farmers to grow various crops by balancing major crop with minor crop.
  3. Minor crops can be grown easily in the seasonal fallow land after harvesting major crops by managing irrigation with proper technologies.
  4. The food consumption habit of the consumer is changing every day with the advancement of economic condition. People move away from a diet based on staples to one with animal products and fruits and vegetables. In turn, farmers can go for diversification of crop to meet these needs.
  5. The agricultural produce is now exported to the foreign countries. The crop diversification is necessary to keep it up in future.
  6. The government has taken different measures for getting suitable market value of the minor crops. As a result, the farmers can diversify their farming to get more output.
  7. The yield of minor crops can be increased by improving agronomic management practices with the remaining crop varieties. This will obviously encourage the farmers to grow minor crops in their land.
  8. Diversification from staple crops to other crops can add more nutritional value to the food which can encourage farmers to do it.
  9. There are so many varieties of different crop released by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute which are compatible with the diversification of crop.
  10. A lot of research is going on for practicing crop diversification to support the increasing population with food, nutrients, clothing and housing from the decreasing land resources.
  11. The Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) is the leading government organization for the dissemination of new technologies in the farmer level. It is playing an active and vital role to disseminate this technology.
  12. There are many NGOs running in this country which are trying their best for food security by disseminating crop diversification program.


Each crop has different set of limitations for practicing diversification. But there are some constraints which are common for every crop. These are:
  1. Most of the farmers of this country use their cultivable land for growing high yielding Boro rice varieties. As a result, the suitable land is always not found for cultivating other crops for diversification.
  2. Most of crops which are suitable for diversification except pulses need irrigation during the dry season. But the farmers who are economically weak cannot afford to irrigate crops rather than rice.
  3. Although there are many varieties for practicing crop diversification, the dissemination of these varieties is still limited.
  4. A greater portion of pulses, oilseeds and edible oils are imported from the foreign country every year. This bring down the local price for pulses. As a result farmers has to compete with international markets which discourage them to produce those in their land.
  5. There is a very common scenery of market price in Bangladesh which is the price of most crops are at the lowest level during harvesting period. As a result, farmers has to sell their produce at cheap rate to meet their cash demands.
  6. There is insufficiency of agricultural credit supply which acts as a deterrent for diversifying the crop.
  7. The quality seeds are not always found at the required time which discourage farmers to go towards diversification.
The implementation of crop diversification has brought a golden opportunity to commercialize the production of those crop which have high market value and can act as substitute for import oriented crops. This program can also play a vital role for exporting agricultural produce to the foreign. So, we all have to come forward to diversify the crops for enriching Bangladesh.

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Sunday, November 12, 2017

Crop Diversification in Bangladesh

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Crop diversification is the new form for sustainable production in the sector of agriculture. It is the move from present crop or cropping system to another crop or cropping system for making more benefit. It is very important step for the development of economy in Bangladesh.
This country is suitable for practicing crop diversification due to favorable climate and soil conditions for the production of a variety of crops throughout the year. For spreading out diversification in crop, A crop diversification project was started its journey in this country during the early 1990s. After taking the project, a culture is gradually developing for the cultivation of different crops in rotation with rice. This practice is being developed progressively based on the farmer’s choice and performances of crops with respective soil and climatic conditions.
Rice and wheat are now substituted by maize since it can be grown throughout the seasons. Besides, food, feed, fodder, fuel and oil are got from maize. The yield potential was low before but the situation is changing due to the use of modern high yielding hybrid varieties. The yield is very good at present. According to BBS, the average yield is 7.3 t/ha in 2015-16 which was only 2.06 t/ha in 2000-01. BBS have also shown that the area of maize cultivation is increasing every year. It was about 4860 ha in 2000-01. But the area of cultivation under maize is about 334,977 ha in 2015-16. Besides maize, the cultivation of other coarse grains like bajra and millets are also running which have considerable importance in the case of using water resources and developing agro-industries.
The climate and soil of this country is suitable for the production of a large variety of fruits and vegetables. Some of the grown fruits like mango, banana, pineapple, jackfruit, etc. have export demand. Seasonal nature of this country is the main problem for fruit cultivation. However, the area and production of fruit is increasing day by day. The total area and production of fruit is 1.5 lakh hectare and 4.8 million metric tons in 2015-16 (BBS).
Potato is a prominent crop in Bangladesh due to its production and domestic demand. It is a suitable crop for food security during rice scarcity due to its high carbohydrate content. It is also used as a vegetables by the people. As it is a short duration crop, the increased use of this crop can reduce the dependency on rice and wheat. The cultivation of this crop is increasing every year. The farmers of this country are cultivating high yielding variety instead of local variety to grow more than previous. The total area and production of potato is 4.8 lakh hectare and 9.5 million metric tons in 2015-16, respectively.
Sweet potato is known as a subsistence as well as a food for poor people. Its area and production is more or less same in last few years. According to BBS, the area and production of sweet potato is about 25 thousands hectare and 2.6 lakh metric tons in 2015-16.
There are six major pulse crops in Bangladesh which are lentil, khesari, blackgram, mungbean, chickpea, and pigeon pea. Cowpea grows well in Chittagong area. The cropped area and production of these pulses is increasing gradually due to their protein supply to the human diet and nitrogen fixation for soil nutrition. BBS has shown in its report that the total cropped area and production of pulses is 3.7 lakh hectare and 3.78 lakh metric tons in 2015-16.
Oilseeds are very important crops due to the source of vegetables oil. Mustard, groundnut, sesame, linseed, soybean, coconut and other oilseed crops are grown in this country. But the cultivation area and production of mustard is higher than any other oilseed crops. Besides mustard, groundnut is cultivated in a significant area.
There are some cash crops namely jute, tea, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane which are grown in this country. Jute is an important cash crop in Bangladesh. It is grown almost all over the country. The area and production of jute is 6.8 lakh hectare and 7.5 million bales in 2015-16 (BBS).
Tea is one of the most important cash crop in Bangladesh due to its value as export crop. It plays a vital role in the national economy. This crop has created a lot of employment opportunities for the people. The area and production of tea is 60 thousands hectare and 64500 metric tons in 2015-16 (BBS). Tobacco is another important cash crop in this country. It grows well in sandy soil which should be well aerated and well drained. It is mainly grown in Kushtia and Rangpur regions.
Cotton is also an important cash crop in Bangladesh. The yield of seed cotton has reached in reasonably high level, although the yield is lower than world standards. But the area and production is increasing day by day. Sugarcane is the most important crop in the country due to sugar industry. It can be grown as a 12-15 month crop in a two year rotation with Aus rice and oilseeds, wheat or vegetables. The yield and quality of sugarcane is relatively low as compared to world standards. But the yield rate is increasing day by day for using improved variety, better management of water resources, fertilizers and other inputs and also for improved cropping systems. According to BBS, the yield of sugarcane is 42.8 tons per hectare in 2015-16.
Crop diversification is a strategy for the sustainable agricultural growth. This is based on changing the nature of agriculture from high risk monsoon based to lower risk irrigation based cropping system. It is done by sustaining the growth of rice production and emphasizing and stimulating other crops which are high valued. This strategy is advancing forward in this country with time by the farmers for their own benefits.

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Monday, November 6, 2017

Crop Diversification and its Benefits

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Crop diversification is the new pattern in the sector of agriculture for sustainable production. It means the move from existing crop or cropping system to another crop or cropping system. It is the change in crop choices and input use decisions which are made by observing the market forces for making more benefit. Hayami and Otsuka (1992) said that crop diversification is the shift of resources from low value agriculture to high value agriculture.
Crop diversification is not only a move from occasional and low value crop(s) to high value crop(s) but also a need based situation specific nonstop and vibrant idea. It may be defined as the addition of new crops or cropping systems to cultivate on a specific farm for getting different outcome from the newly added crops with complementary market facilities. The diversification may be from major crop minor crops, cereal to non- cereal crops, etc.
Benefits of Crop Diversification
There are so many benefits for making crop diversification on a farm. This is frequently done by intelligent farmers. The benefits are:
  1. More income is received from a small farm holdings due to different types of crops are grown at a time on the farm.
  2. The production of crops is running throughout the year. As a result the price fluctuation of the agricultural products is minimum.
  3. The self-sufficiency in food grain production can be attained along with increased production of other nutritional crops.
  4. The negative impacts of climate change can be managed at a certain level.
  5. A balance among the demand of food prevails throughout the year.
  6. The fodder for livestock animals can be produced which ensures the good health of domestic animals as well as the economic benefit of farm owner.
  7. The natural resources which is becoming damaged day by day can be conserved.
  8. The exporting of agricultural products especially vegetables and fruits can be increased.
  9. The modern agricultural practices can be adopted easily in dry land, wetland and coastal areas.
  10. The land, water and other resources can be used more efficiently which can ensure the sustainable growth of agriculture.
  11. The comparatively large farms can be encouraged for commercial farming.
  12. The environment can be protected from different types of pollution at a certain level.
  13. The dependence on off farm inputs can be reduced due to the production of various crops on the farm.
  14. The infestation of insect, pests and diseases can be reduced by making crop rotation.
Crop diversification is now a discussed term in the sector of agriculture throughout the world. Most of the country are trying to diversify their agriculture for making export based crop production and increasing net income and financial security. It is now almost a normal approach of sustainable agriculture for the profitable management of farm in most of the extensive parts of the world.

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